In this period each bird eats more feed 120-125 gm per day for maintain body temperature and high production. Due to intake more feed, maximum production of birds found during this period but at the end of the cold some serious problems worried the farmers.
This problem is more observed at the end of the cold to hot
- In most of the birds have heavy abdominal fat which is the main cause of fatty liver syndrome
- Excessive subcutaneous fat.
- Massive fat deposit in intestines, covering gizzard, kidneys, and base of heart.
- Typical yellow liver showing extreme infiltration of fat . normal liver seldom contains as much as 70% fat. lacks the firm texture of a normal organ and may be soft Sometimes hemorrhages occurs beneath liver and evidence of healing may be seen.
These birds cannot tolerate sudden increase of temperature and humidity causing heavy losses due to mortality and production.
i)In water use of drugs for fatty liver syndrome such as Toxol liquid-1 ml/lit Dw for 7-10 days.
ii) 100 grams of choline chloride per 100 kg of feed.
iii) In feed use of Toxol feed premix 100-150 gm per 100 kg feed for a month.
iv) ) In feed use of Lecithins ,Trimethylglycine (Betaine),( Biosurf @ 50 gm/100 kg feed)
Heat Stress not only causes suffering and death in the birds, but results in reduced or lost production. Poultry birds are comfortable when environmental temperature is within the range of 65 to 75 °F (18 to 24 °C ). In summer when maximum day temperature hovering around 41°C (106ºF)lead to serious problems of heat stress.
Prevention of Heat Stress:
i) Adequate air movement and Cool/iced water consumption
ii) Fasting during heat stress: Feed withdrawal from 9 am to 4.30 pm. This is very effective in reducing heat stress mortality
iii) Poultry farms, with trees and lawns around and getting good breeze will have lesser problems in summer season.
iv) Roof insulation
v) Increased ventilation by fans would help to withstand moderate hot weather.
vi) Care should be taken to avoid overcrowding and to provide shade to overhead water tanks and pipe system.
vii) Medicines should be administered at the early morning when temp. is low
viii) Extra midnight feeding/17 hrs lighting
ix) Light in early morning
x) Wire clean regularly
xi) Keep out mud pots a lot of/Hang out gunny bags on the sides
xii) Spray with water
xiii) On the roof wet gunny bags/Coconut leaves/straw may be give for reduce heat
Treatment of Heat Stress:
Through drinking water:
I. Vit-C- 1 gm/2-3 lit)
II. Electrolyte saline-1 gm/2 lit
III. Acetyl salicylic acid
IV. Sodium bicarbonate 1gr/Litre
V. Potassium chloride ( KCl) 125 mg/Litre
I. Sodium bicarbonate 100- 500 gm/100 kg feed
II. Higher fat/Oil in feed with biosurf
III. Supplementation of probiotic Lactobacillus sp. may enrich diversity of microflora in chicken.Restore microbial balance in jejunum and caeca.Reduce harmful effect of heat stress.
I. In early morning water use ADE/Amino acid/Multivitamin
II. Other time zinc/Vit-C/E-Sel/Immunity enhancher
I. Increase Enzyme in feed
II. E-Sel powder-50 gm/100 kg feed
III. Higher fat/Oil in feed with biosurf
IV. Increase granulated DCP and limestone in feed
V. Sodium bicarbonate 100- 500 gm/100 kg feed
VI. Supplementation of probiotic Lactobacillus sp
It has been shown that the mycotoxins such as Aflatoxins, ochratoxin and citrinin cause marked pathological changes in the Liver, kidneys, These toxins are commonly found in ingredients such as maize, soya etc which are harvested at early summer, due to high moisture content cause severe gastrointestinal disorder producing wet litter and toxicosis.
Before use medicine Use Copper Sulphate 1 gm/ 4 lit Dw + Haemeco-Ph 1 ml / 2 lit for 3-4 hrs at early morning water.
I. Liquid Toxin remover like Two-plus,Toxinyl plus-1 ml/lit dw for 5-7 days
II. E-sel-1 ml/lit dw for 5-7 days
III. Nephrocare-1 ml/lit dw for 5-7 days
I. Toxin binder
III. Toxol feed premix
Egg parameters that influence hatchability are: weight, shell thickness and porosity, shape index and the consistency of the contents. Feed intake in heat-stressed chickens associated with high ambient temperature and relative humidity was reduced by 20%. Heat stress reduces the external and internal egg qualities. Heat stress affects all phases of semen production in breeder cocks, reduce mating activity and impaired libido.
I. Fertile eggs should not be stored for more than 10-14 days, after 14 days of storage; hatchability begins to decline significantly.
II. A constant incubation temperature of 37.8 C is the thermal homeostasis in the chick embryo and gives the best embryo development and hatchability. Mortality is seen if the temperature drops below 35.6 C or rises above 39.4 C for a number of hours.
III. Egg turning during incubation is critical for successful hatching and influences hatchability. No turning of eggs during incubation results in low hatchability and delays hatch by a few days.
VIII. Continue use of Biosurf, E-Sel powder,Vit- C powder,Toxol fed premix in breeder feed reduces this problem.
In older birds good litter is typically 10-30% moisture and in young birds that is 5-10%.Moisture above 40% level in litter makes it wet.In summer session birds drink excessively; this increases urine output and as a result the droppings have a more fluid consistency
I. Haemeco-Ph in early morning water
II. Electromine Saline during hottest time
III. Biosurf for excess fat tends to make the faeces sticky and the droppings adhere to the foot pads and can form a solid crust on the litter surface.
IV. In summer session rancidity of protein, fat, meat & bone meal develops quickly, In feed must use Hadox Dry 50 gm/100 kg feed to prevent rancidity.
V. For clostridium and E.Coli diarrhea-Doxytin+Haemeco PH
Problem-7: Immunosupression, vaccination failure
I. ADE and zinc syp.
III. Methionine and choline in feed
IV. Dietary additives for enhancing nutritional value of feeds such as
# Enzyme supplementation to improve the productive value of high fibre diets.
# Use of probiotics for improving the performance of birds.
Clean water is very important for the proper development of chicks. 15 x chicks will drink around 1 litre of water a day, as they get older, their water consumption will increase where each full-grown laying hen will drink about 500 ml of water a day. Whatever the source, water provided to poultry farms must be free from microbial contamination that could cause disease in poultry, or lead to food safety issues
During summer Water sources get contaminated with various organic and inorganic substances resulting in high pH thus chances of growing pathogens including salmonella sp., E. coli and fungi is high. Contamination of drinking water in poultry is formidable.
It is a good idea to soak all watering equipment at least once each week in a sanitising solution. Allow the equipment to remain in the solution for 15 minutes before draining.
I.Use Haemeco-PH 1 ml/ 2 lit DW in the early morning water
II. It is a good idea to wash all watering equipment at least once each week in a Glutex Solution.
III. Chlorinating to Eliminate Bacterial Contamination
In heat stress there is excessive oxidative metabolism and release of free radicals in the body.
I. E-Sel liquid/Powder: Vit E captures and neutralizes free radicals and its inclusion at 50 to 100 ppm in feed is advisable
II.Vitamin C also has antioxidant property.
III.Antioxidants namely BHA ,BHT and EQ will protect fats and oils in feed from oxidative rancidity (Hadox dry antioxidant of square).