Colibacillosis in poultry
Also known as Cellulitis, Coli granuloma, Mushy chick disease
Colibacillosis (Coli granuloma, Mushy chick disease, cellulitis) occurs worldwide in all species and all ages of poultry. It is caused by a gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. It is the most common bacterial pathogen of poultry, and the second most common of all poultry pathogens.
- Causes of Colibacillosis >
- Effects of Colibacillosis >
- Diagnosis of Colibacillosis >
- Treatment & Control of Colibacillosis >
Causes of Colibacillosis
This disease has a number of names because it causes granulomas in adults and yolk sac infection in chicks.
Chronic granuloma coli mature birds of all species, and may be acute as occurring in chicks omphalitis.
Escherichia coli are gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming Bacilli, and many strains have flagellation.
Mode of transmission
E. coli may be a primary or secondary invader. It is the most common bacterial pathogen in poultry and second most common of all pathogens of poultry.
Faecal contamination of eggs, transovarian contamination, feed and water contaminated with bacteria can occur commonly.
Aerosol spread may occur.
E. coli is a normal contaminant in the Intestines and may complicate mycoplasma, MP, LT, and / or NDV in the air sacs, heart, liver and lungs causing air sacculities and / or chronic respiratory disease (CRD). Several serotypes difficultur make vaccination. E. coli is a very important cause of economic losses due to mortality in poultry, drops in weight gain, hatch ability and an import or cause Septicemia-toxemia (Sept-tox), air sacculities, and Condemnation in IP processing plant. Sept-tox is the leading infectious cause of Condemnation in the broiler processing plant in the U.S., air sacculities is the second, and the third IP.
Effects of Colibacillosis
Low performance in older birds or high mortality in younger birds, high embryonic mortality, respiratory distress and enteritis (diarrhea) can be evident.
Post mortem lesions:
Cauliflower-like nodules on viscera (granuloma), omphalitis in chicks, discolored and misshapen yolk (mushy chick) are seen. These lesions are characteristic. Air sacculitis, salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), enteritis, synovitis, arthritis, pericarditis, peritonitis, panophthalmitis, or swollen head syndrome are common. Cellulitis, an inflammation of the cellular or connective tissue, can be caused by E. coli. The soft tissue is heavily may be necrotic and gangrenous. It can result in extensive processing plant Condemnation. It is sometimes called infectious process or IP.
Diagnosis of Colibacillosis
Laboratory isolation of E. coli for lesions, yolk, blood on MacConkey’s or methylene blue agar (EMB). Colonies are pink on MacConkey’s and dark with metallic sheen. It Simulates Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Tuberculosis, Fowl cholera, Marek’s disease and Aspergillosis.